Stainless Round bar Stainless Long bar Stainless Long Lenght bar Turned ground and polished Stainless bar Stainless long products Stainless long bars for sale ground and polished 304 stainless centerless ground stainless round bar ground and polished 316 stainless bars large diameter stainless bar small diameter stainless bar Stainless Round bars Stainless Long bars Stainless Long Lenght bars Turned ground and polished Stainless bars stainless Pump shaft Quality Pump shafting Quality stainless stainless Pump shaft stainless Custom shaft Stainless Pump shafts Stainless Pumpshafts Stainless boats shafting Stainless marine shafting Stainless 304 Custom shaft Stainless 316 bearing quality shafting Stainless 304 shafting Stainless 316 Custom shaft Stainless 304 Pump shafts Stainless 316 long bar Stainless 304 Pumpshafts Stainless 316 round bar Stainless 304 long bar Stainless 304 round bar Stainless 316 long lenght bars Stainless 304 long lenght bars Stainless centerless round bars Stainless boat shafting Stainless Grinding finishing
Circle H Steel Products, Inc.
Specializes in Long Length Bars
E-Mail: info@circlehsteel.com   -   (800) 382-7748   -   (713) 910-2111   -   Fx: (713) 910-2221
 416 heat treated Stainless steel heat treating 410 heat treated Stainless steel import 303 Stainless steels Finished inner diameter 304 Stainless steel export alloys vertical heat treat  alloys export 309 Stainless steel vertical heat treat 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels distribution 310 Stainless steel finishing Specialty Alloy Bar grind 400 Stainless steel Custom shafting  15-5 PH Stainless steels grind 416 heat treated Stainless steel Custom shafting Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding 410 heat treated Stainless steel shaft 303 Stainless steels horizontal heat treat HOME  304 Stainless steel shaft alloys horizontal heat treat 309 Stainless steel heat treating 310 Stainless steel import Specialty Alloy Bar Finished inner diameter 400 Stainless steel export  15-5 PH Stainless steels export 416 heat treated Stainless steel vertical heat treat Stainless steel distribution 410 heat treated Stainless steel finishing 303 Stainless steels grind 304 Stainless steel Custom shafting  309 Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels shaft 310 Stainless steel horizontal heat treat Specialty Alloy Bar heat treating 15-5 PH Stainless steels import |  alloys grind 309 Stainless steel Custom shafting 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels semi finished Custom Grinding 310 Stainless steel shaft Specialty Alloy Bar horizontal heat treat 400 Stainless steel heat treating  309 Stainless steel grind 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Custom shafting 310 Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding Specialty Alloy Bar shaft 400 Stainless steel horizontal heat treat 15-5 PH Stainless steels heat treating  Stainless steel grinders 410 heat treated Stainless steel custom finishing 303 Stainless steels inner diameter Trepanning 304 Stainless steel Heat treating alloys shafts 309 Stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing CONTACT US  309 Stainless steel shafts 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Custom Grinding finishing 310 Stainless steel Turned Ground Polished Specialty Alloy Bar bore 400 Stainless steel polishing 15-5 PH Stainless steels ground polishing  416 heat treated Stainless steel outer diameter Boring Stainless steel Custom Shafting 303 Stainless steels grinders 304 Stainless steel custom finishing alloys inner diameter Trepanning 309 Stainless steel Heat treating  416 heat treated Stainless steel ground polishing Stainless steel outer diameter Boring 410 heat treated Stainless steel Custom Shafting 304 Stainless steel grinders alloys custom finishing |  alloys grinders 309 Stainless steel custom finishing 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels inner diameter Trepanning 310 Stainless steel Heat treating Specialty Alloy Bar shafts 400 Stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing  15-5 PH Stainless steels Turned Ground Polished 416 heat treated Stainless steel bore Stainless steel polishing 410 heat treated Stainless steel ground polishing 303 Stainless steels outer diameter Boring  15-5 PH Stainless steels Custom Grinding finishing 416 heat treated Stainless steel Turned Ground Polished Stainless steel bore 410 heat treated Stainless steel polishing 303 Stainless steels ground polishing SERVICES  304 Stainless steel ground polishing alloys outer diameter Boring 309 Stainless steel Custom Shafting 310 Stainless steel grinders Specialty Alloy Bar custom finishing 400 Stainless steel inner diameter Trepanning  15-5 PH Stainless steels Heat treating 416 heat treated Stainless steel shafts Stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing 410 heat treated Stainless steel Turned Ground Polished 303 Stainless steels bore  304 Stainless steel bore alloys polishing 309 Stainless steel ground polishing 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels outer diameter Boring 310 Stainless steel Custom Shafting 400 Stainless steel grinders |  304 Stainless steel Turned Ground Polished alloys bore 309 Stainless steel polishing 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels ground polishing 310 Stainless steel outer diameter Boring Specialty Alloy Bar Custom Shafting  15-5 PH Stainless steels grinders 416 heat treated Stainless steel custom finishing Stainless steel inner diameter Trepanning 410 heat treated Stainless steel Heat treating 303 Stainless steels shafts  304 Stainless steel shafts alloys Custom Grinding finishing 309 Stainless steel Turned Ground Polished 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels bore 310 Stainless steel polishing Specialty Alloy Bar ground polishing PRODUCTS  304 Stainless steel Custom Grinding alloys horizontally heat treated 309 Stainless steel custom shafting finished 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels inner diameter Boring 310 Stainless steel Heat Treating services  Specialty Alloy Bar distributers 400 Stainless steel Grinding 15-5 PH Stainless steels custom shafting finishing 416 heat treated Stainless steel Mechanical testing 410 heat treated Stainless steel Heat Treat  Stainless steel Mechanical testing 303 Stainless steels Heat Treat 304 Stainless steel vertically heat treated alloys inner diameter finishing 309 Stainless steel Custom Grinding |  15-5 PH Stainless steels distributers 416 heat treated Stainless steel Grinding Stainless steel custom shafting finishing 410 heat treated Stainless steel Mechanical testing 304 Stainless steel Heat Treat  alloys vertically heat treated 309 Stainless steel inner diameter finishing 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Custom Grinding 310 Stainless steel horizontally heat treated Specialty Alloy Bar custom shafting finished  Specialty Alloy Bar horizontally heat treated 400 Stainless steel custom shafting finished 15-5 PH Stainless steels inner diameter Boring 416 heat treated Stainless steel Heat Treating services LOCATION  17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels vertically heat treated 310 Stainless steel inner diameter finishing Specialty Alloy Bar Custom Grinding 400 Stainless steel horizontally heat treated  15-5 PH Stainless steels custom shafting finished 416 heat treated Stainless steel inner diameter Boring Stainless steel Heat Treating services 410 heat treated Stainless steel distributers  Stainless steel inner diameter Boring 410 heat treated Stainless steel Heat Treating services 303 Stainless steels distributers 304 Stainless steel Grinding alloys custom shafting finishing
 
 416 heat treated Stainless steel horizontally heat treated Stainless steel custom shafting finished 410 heat treated Stainless steel inner diameter Boring 303 Stainless steels Heat Treating services  304 Stainless steel distributers alloys Grinding 309 Stainless steel custom shafting finishing 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Mechanical testing Specialty Alloy Bar Heat Treat 400 Stainless steel vertically heat treated Home  310 Stainless steel Mechanical testing 400 Stainless steel Heat Treat 15-5 PH Stainless steels vertically heat treated 416 heat treated Stainless steel inner diameter finishing Stainless steel Custom Grinding  410 heat treated Stainless steel horizontally heat treated 303 Stainless steels custom shafting finished 304 Stainless steel inner diameter Boring alloys Heat Treating services 309 Stainless steel distributers
 309 Stainless steel Heat Treating services 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels distributers 310 Stainless steel Grinding Specialty Alloy Bar custom shafting finishing 400 Stainless steel Mechanical testing  416 heat treated Stainless steel Heat Treat Stainless steel vertically heat treated 410 heat treated Stainless steel inner diameter finishing 303 Stainless steels Custom Grinding 304 Stainless steel horizontally heat treated Contact Us  304 Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning alloys Trepanning 309 Stainless steel importation 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels outer diameter finishing 310 Stainless steel exportation Specialty Alloy Bar Boring  400 Stainless steel Trepan 15-5 PH Stainless steels finished outer diameter 416 heat treated Stainless steel honed 410 heat treated Stainless steel Surface hardness testing 303 Stainless steels hardness tests
 alloys Boring 309 Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Trepanning 310 Stainless steel importation Specialty Alloy Bar outer diameter finishing 400 Stainless steel exportation  15-5 PH Stainless steels Boring 416 heat treated Stainless steel Trepan Stainless steel finished outer diameter 410 heat treated Stainless steel honed 304 Stainless steel Surface hardness testing alloys hardness tests Services  309 Stainless steel hardness tests 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Boring 310 Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning Specialty Alloy Bar Trepanning 400 Stainless steel importation  15-5 PH Stainless steels outer diameter finishing 416 heat treated Stainless steel exportation Stainless steel Boring 410 heat treated Stainless steel Trepan 303 Stainless steels finished outer diameter
 304 Stainless steel finished outer diameter alloys honed 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Surface hardness testing 310 Stainless steel hardness tests Specialty Alloy Bar Boring 400 Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning  15-5 PH Stainless steels Trepanning 416 heat treated Stainless steel importation Stainless steel outer diameter finishing 410 heat treated Stainless steel exportation 303 Stainless steels Boring 304 Stainless steel Trepan Grinding / Custom Shafting
 309 Stainless steel finished outer diameter 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels honed Specialty Alloy Bar Surface hardness testing 400 Stainless steel hardness tests 15-5 PH Stainless steels Boring  416 heat treated Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning Stainless steel Trepanning 410 heat treated Stainless steel importation 303 Stainless steels outer diameter finishing 304 Stainless steel exportation Heat Treating  alloys exportation 309 Stainless steel Boring 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels Trepan 310 Stainless steel finished outer diameter Specialty Alloy Bar honed 15-5 PH Stainless steels Surface hardness testing  416 heat treated Stainless steel hardness tests Stainless steel Boring 410 heat treated Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning 303 Stainless steels Trepanning 304 Stainless steel importation
 alloys importation 309 Stainless steel outer diameter finishing 17-4 PH H.T. Stainless steels exportation 310 Stainless steel Boring Specialty Alloy Bar Trepan 400 Stainless steel finished outer diameter  15-5 PH Stainless steels honed XM 19 Stainless steels import metal Finished inner diameter stainless steel export 317 Stainless steels vertical heat treat 316 L Stainless steel distribution Alloy 20 finishing Boring / Trepanning  steel Custom shafting 15 5 PH Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel shaft XM-19 Stainless steels horizontal heat treat XM 19 Stainless steels heat treating stainless steel import  317 Stainless steels Finished inner diameter 316 L Stainless steel export Alloy 20 vertical heat treat 410 Stainless steel distribution 416 Stainless steels finishing steel grind 15 5 PH Stainless steel Custom shafting
 XM-19 Stainless steels semi finished Custom Grinding XM 19 Stainless steels shaft metal horizontal heat treat stainless steel heat treating 316 L Stainless steel import Alloy 20 Finished inner diameter  410 Stainless steel export 416 Stainless steels vertical heat treat steel distribution 15 5 PH Stainless steel finishing 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel grind XM-19 Stainless steels Custom shafting Hardness Conversion Chart  410 Stainless steel heat treating steel import 15 5 PH Stainless steel Finished inner diameter 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel export XM-19 Stainless steels vertical heat treat XM 19 Stainless steels distribution metal finishing
 metal semi finished Custom Grinding stainless steel shaft 317 Stainless steels horizontal heat treat 316 L Stainless steel heat treating 410 Stainless steel import 416 Stainless steels Finished inner diameter  steel export 15 5 PH Stainless steel vertical heat treat 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel distribution XM-19 Stainless steels finishing XM 19 Stainless steels grind metal Custom shafting stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding Products  15 5 PH Stainless steel import 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Finished inner diameter XM-19 Stainless steels export XM 19 Stainless steels vertical heat treat metal distribution stainless steel finishing 317 Stainless steels grind  316 L Stainless steel Custom shafting Alloy 20 semi finished Custom Grinding 410 Stainless steel shaft 416 Stainless steels horizontal heat treat steel heat treating 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel import
 metal export stainless steel vertical heat treat 317 Stainless steels distribution 316 L Stainless steel finishing Alloy 20 grind 410 Stainless steel Custom shafting 416 Stainless steels semi finished Custom Grinding  steel shaft 15 5 PH Stainless steel horizontal heat treat 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel heat treating XM 19 Stainless steels grinders metal custom finishing stainless steel inner diameter Trepanning Stainless Steel  Alloy 20 shafts 410 Stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing 416 Stainless steels Turned Ground Polished steel bore 15 5 PH Stainless steel polishing 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel ground polishing  XM-19 Stainless steels outer diameter Boring XM 19 Stainless steels Custom Shafting stainless steel grinders 317 Stainless steels custom finishing 316 L Stainless steel inner diameter Trepanning Alloy 20 Heat treating
 416 Stainless steels shafts steel Custom Grinding finishing 15 5 PH Stainless steel Turned Ground Polished 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel bore XM-19 Stainless steels polishing XM 19 Stainless steels ground polishing  metal outer diameter Boring stainless steel Custom Shafting 316 L Stainless steel grinders Alloy 20 custom finishing 410 Stainless steel inner diameter Trepanning 416 Stainless steels Heat treating steel shafts Specialty Alloy Bar  17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing XM-19 Stainless steels Turned Ground Polished XM 19 Stainless steels bore metal polishing stainless steel ground polishing 317 Stainless steels outer diameter Boring  316 L Stainless steel Custom Shafting 410 Stainless steel grinders 416 Stainless steels custom finishing steel inner diameter Trepanning 15 5 PH Stainless steel Heat treating 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel shafts
 XM 19 Stainless steels Custom Grinding finishing metal Turned Ground Polished stainless steel bore 317 Stainless steels polishing 316 L Stainless steel ground polishing Alloy 20 outer diameter Boring  410 Stainless steel Custom Shafting steel grinders 15 5 PH Stainless steel custom finishing 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel inner diameter Trepanning XM-19 Stainless steels Heat treating XM 19 Stainless steels shafts 303 Stainless  stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing 317 Stainless steels Turned Ground Polished 316 L Stainless steel bore Alloy 20 polishing 410 Stainless steel ground polishing 416 Stainless steels outer diameter Boring  steel Custom Shafting 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel grinders XM-19 Stainless steels custom finishing XM 19 Stainless steels inner diameter Trepanning metal Heat treating stainless steel shafts
 316 L Stainless steel Custom Grinding finishing Alloy 20 Turned Ground Polished 410 Stainless steel bore 416 Stainless steels polishing steel ground polishing 15 5 PH Stainless steel outer diameter Boring  17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Custom Shafting XM 19 Stainless steels Heat Treat metal vertically heat treated stainless steel inner diameter finishing 317 Stainless steels Custom Grinding 304 Stainless  316 L Stainless steel Custom Grinding Alloy 20 horizontally heat treated 410 Stainless steel custom shafting finished 416 Stainless steels inner diameter Boring steel Heat Treating services 15 5 PH Stainless steel distributers  17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Grinding XM-19 Stainless steels custom shafting finishing XM 19 Stainless steels Mechanical testing stainless steel Heat Treat 317 Stainless steels vertically heat treated
 317 Stainless steels Heat Treat 316 L Stainless steel vertically heat treated Alloy 20 inner diameter finishing 410 Stainless steel Custom Grinding 416 Stainless steels horizontally heat treated  steel custom shafting finished 15 5 PH Stainless steel inner diameter Boring 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Heat Treating services XM-19 Stainless steels distributers XM 19 Stainless steels Grinding 316 Stainless  metal Grinding stainless steel custom shafting finishing 317 Stainless steels Mechanical testing Alloy 20 Heat Treat 410 Stainless steel vertically heat treated 416 Stainless steels inner diameter finishing  steel Custom Grinding 15 5 PH Stainless steel horizontally heat treated 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel custom shafting finished XM-19 Stainless steels inner diameter Boring XM 19 Stainless steels Heat Treating services
 metal Heat Treating services stainless steel distributers 317 Stainless steels Grinding 316 L Stainless steel custom shafting finishing Alloy 20 Mechanical testing 416 Stainless steels Heat Treat  steel vertically heat treated 15 5 PH Stainless steel inner diameter finishing 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Custom Grinding XM-19 Stainless steels horizontally heat treated XM 19 Stainless steels custom shafting finished 410 Stainless  metal custom shafting finished stainless steel inner diameter Boring 317 Stainless steels Heat Treating services 316 L Stainless steel distributers Alloy 20 Grinding 410 Stainless steel custom shafting finishing  416 Stainless steels Mechanical testing 15 5 PH Stainless steel Heat Treat 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel vertically heat treated XM-19 Stainless steels inner diameter finishing XM 19 Stainless steels Custom Grinding
 metal Custom Grinding stainless steel horizontally heat treated 317 Stainless steels custom shafting finished 316 L Stainless steel inner diameter Boring Alloy 20 Heat Treating services 410 Stainless steel distributers  416 Stainless steels Grinding steel custom shafting finishing 15 5 PH Stainless steel Mechanical testing XM-19 Stainless steels Heat Treat XM 19 Stainless steels vertically heat treated metal inner diameter finishing 416 Stainless (class 1 & 2)  stainless steel Boring 317 Stainless steels outer diameter Trepanning 316 L Stainless steel Trepanning Alloy 20 importation 410 Stainless steel outer diameter finishing 416 Stainless steels exportation  steel Boring 15 5 PH Stainless steel Trepan 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel finished outer diameter XM-19 Stainless steels honed metal Surface hardness testing stainless steel hardness tests 317 Stainless steels Boring
 Alloy 20 outer diameter Trepanning 410 Stainless steel Trepanning 416 Stainless steels importation steel outer diameter finishing 15 5 PH Stainless steel exportation 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel Boring  XM-19 Stainless steels Trepan XM 19 Stainless steels finished outer diameter metal honed 317 Stainless steels Surface hardness testing 316 L Stainless steel hardness tests Alloy 20 Boring 416 Heat Treated  steel Trepanning 15 5 PH Stainless steel importation 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel outer diameter finishing XM-19 Stainless steels exportation XM 19 Stainless steels Boring metal Trepan stainless steel finished outer diameter  317 Stainless steels honed Alloy 20 Surface hardness testing 410 Stainless steel hardness tests 416 Stainless steels Boring steel outer diameter Trepanning 15 5 PH Stainless steel Trepanning
 XM-19 Stainless steels importation XM 19 Stainless steels outer diameter finishing metal exportation stainless steel Boring 317 Stainless steels Trepan 316 L Stainless steel finished outer diameter Alloy 20 honed  416 Stainless steels Surface hardness testing steel hardness tests 15 5 PH Stainless steel Boring 17 4 PH HT Stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning XM-19 Stainless steels Trepanning XM 19 Stainless steels importation 17-4 Stainless  317 Stainless steels exportation 316 L Stainless steel Boring Alloy 20 Trepan 410 Stainless steel finished outer diameter 416 Stainless steels honed 15 5 PH Stainless steel Surface hardness testing  17 4 PH HT Stainless steel hardness tests XM-19 Stainless steels Boring XM 19 Stainless steels outer diameter Trepanning metal Trepanning stainless steel importation 317 Stainless steels outer diameter finishing
 XM 19 Stainless steels Boring metal outer diameter Trepanning stainless steel Trepanning 317 Stainless steels importation 316 L Stainless steel outer diameter finishing Alloy 20 exportation 410 Stainless steel Boring  416 Stainless steels Trepan steel finished outer diameter 15 5 PH Stainless steel honed XM-19 Stainless steels Surface hardness testing XM 19 Stainless steels hardness tests metal Boring stainless steel outer diameter Trepanning Alloy 20  416 Stainless steel class 1 finishing 17-4 PH Stainless steels grind XM-19 HS Stainless steel Custom shafting metals alloy semi finished Custom Grinding 416 HT Stainless steel shaft 304 L Stainless steel horizontal heat treat  416 heat treated Stainless steel heat treating Stainless steel import 317 L Stainless steels Finished inner diameter 316 Stainless steel export 410 H.T. Stainless steel vertical heat treat 416 Stainless steel class 1 distribution
 XM-19 HS Stainless steel finishing metals alloy grind 416 HT Stainless steel Custom shafting 304 L Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding 416 heat treated Stainless steel shaft 304L Stainless steel horizontal heat treat  Stainless steel heat treating 316 Stainless steel import 410 H.T. Stainless steel Finished inner diameter 416 Stainless steel class 1 export 17-4 PH Stainless steels vertical heat treat XM-19 HS Stainless steel distribution XM19  416 HT Stainless steel finishing 304 L Stainless steel grind 416 heat treated Stainless steel Custom shafting 304L Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding Stainless steel shaft 317 L Stainless steels horizontal heat treat  316 Stainless steel heat treating 416 Stainless steel class 1 import 17-4 PH Stainless steels Finished inner diameter XM-19 HS Stainless steel export metals alloy vertical heat treat 416 HT Stainless steel distribution
 416 heat treated Stainless steel finishing 304L Stainless steel grind Stainless steel Custom shafting 317 L Stainless steels semi finished Custom Grinding 316 Stainless steel shaft 410 H.T. Stainless steel horizontal heat treat  416 Stainless steel class 1 heat treating XM-19 HS Stainless steel import metals alloy Finished inner diameter 416 HT Stainless steel export 304 L Stainless steel vertical heat treat 416 heat treated Stainless steel distribution Location  Stainless steel finishing 317 L Stainless steels grind 316 Stainless steel Custom shafting 410 H.T. Stainless steel semi finished Custom Grinding 416 Stainless steel class 1 shaft 17-4 PH Stainless steels horizontal heat treat  XM-19 HS Stainless steel heat treating 416 HT Stainless steel import 304 L Stainless steel Finished inner diameter 416 heat treated Stainless steel export 304L Stainless steel vertical heat treat Stainless steel distribution


Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel Sizes we provide

1/8"
3/16"
1/4"
254/256"
9/32"
5/16"
316/319"
11/32"
3/8"
379/382"
13/32"
7/16"
15/32"
1/2"
505/509"
9/16"
19/32"
5/8" 628/632"
11/16"
3/4"
754/759"
13/16"
7/8"
15/16"
1"
1.006/1.010"
1-1/16"
1-1/8"
1-3/16"
1-1/4"
1-3/8"
1-7/16"
1-1/2"
1-9/16"
1-5/8"
1-11/16"
1-3/4"
1-7/8"
1-15/16"
2"
2-3/16"
2-1/4"
2-1/2"
2-3/4"
3"
3-1/4"
3-1/2"
3-3/4"
4"
4-1/4"
4-1/2"
4-3/4"
5"
5-1/4"
5-1/2"
5-3/4"
6"
6-1/4"
6-1/2"
6-3/4"
7"
7-1/4"
7-1/2"
7-3/4"
8"
8-1/2"
9"
10"
11"
12"
 

Stainless steel is not a single material but the name for a family of corrosion resistant steels. Like many scientific discoveries the origins of stainless steel lies in a serendipitous accident. In 1913 Sheffield, England, Harry Brearley was investigating the development of new steel alloys for use in gun barrels. He noticed that some of his samples didn’t rust and were difficult to etch. These alloys contained around 13% chromium.

The first application of these steels was in cutlery for which Sheffield subsequently became world famous. Simultaneous work in France led to the development of the first austenitic stainless steels.

Properties Of Stainless Steels
The advantageous properties of stainless steels can be seen when compared to standard plain carbon mild steel. Although stainless steels have a broad range of properties, in general, when compared with mild steel, stainless steels have:

  • Higher corrosion resistance
  • Higher cryogenic toughness
  • Higher work hardening rate
  • Higher hot strength
  • Higher ductility
  • Higher strength and hardness
  • A more attractive appearance
  • Lower maintenance

Stainless Steels Corrosion Resistance
All stainless steels are iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of around 10.5% Chromium. The Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective clear oxide layer. This oxide layer gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance. The self healing nature of the oxide layer means the corrosion resistance remains intact regardless of fabrication methods. Even if the material surface is cut or damaged, it will self heal and corrosion resistance will be maintained.

Conversely, normal carbon steels may be protected from corrosion by painting or other coatings like galvanising. Any modification of the surface exposes the underlying steel and corrosion can occur.

The corrosion of different grades of stainless steel will differ with various environments. Suitable grades will depend upon the service environment. Even trace amounts of some elements can markedly alter the corrosion resistance. Chlorides in particular can have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

Grades high in Chromium, Molybdenum and Nickel are the most resistant to corrosion.

Stainless Steels Cryogenic (Low Temp.) Resistance
Cryogenic resistance is measured by the ductility or toughness at sub zero temperatures. At cryogenic temperatures the tensile strengths of austenitic stainless steels are substantially higher than at ambient temperatures. They also maintain excellent toughness.

Ferritic, martensitic and precipitation hardening steels should not be used at sub-zero temperatures. The toughness of these grades drops significantly at low temperatures. In some cases this drop occurs close to room temperature.

Stainless Steels Work Hardening
Work hardenable grades of stainless steel have the advantage that significant increases to the strength of the metal can be achieved simply through cold working. A combination of cold working and annealing stages can be employed to give the fabricated component a specific strength.

A typical example of this is the drawing of wire. Wire to be used as springs will be work hardened to a particular tensile strength. If the same wire was to be used as a bendable tie wire, it would be annealed, resulting in a softer material.

Stainless Steels Hot Strength
Austenitic grades retain high strength at elevated temperatures. This is particularly so with grades containing high levels of chromium and/or high silicon, nitrogen and rare earth elements (e.g. grade 310 and S30815). High chromium ferritic grades like 446 can also show high hot strength.

The high chromium content of stainless steels also helps to resist scaling at elevated temperatures.

Stainless Steels Ductility
Ductility tends to be given by the % elongation during a tensile test. The elongation for austenitic stainless steels is quite high. High ductility and high work hardening rates allows austenitic stainless steels to be formed using severe processes such as deep drawing.

Stainless Steels High Strength
When compared with mild steels, stainless steels tend to have higher tensile strength. The duplex stainless steels have higher tensile strengths than austenitic steels.

The highest tensile strengths are seen in the martensitic (431) and precipitation hardening grades (17-4 PH). These grades can have strengths double that of 304 and 316, the most commonly used stainless steels.

Stainless Steels Magnetic Response
Magnetic response is the attraction of steel to a magnet. Austenitic grades are generally not magnetic although a magnetic response can be induced in the low austenitic grades by cold working. High nickel grades like 316 and 310 will remain non-magnetic even with cold working.

All other grades are magnetic.

Stainless Steel Families
Although the corrosion resistance of stainless comes from the presence of Chromium, other elements are added to enhance other properties. These elements alter the microstructure of the steel.

Stainless steels are grouped into families based on their metallurgical microstructure. The microstructure may be composed of the stable phases austenite or ferrite, a “duplex” mix of these two, martensite or a hardened structure containing precipitated micro-constituents.

Austenitic Stainless Steels
Austenitic stainless steels contain a minimum of 16% chromium and 6% nickel. They range from basic grades like 304 through to super austenitics such as 904L and 6% Molybdenum grades.

By adding elements such as Molybdenum, Titanium or Copper, the properties of the steel can be modified. These modifications can make the steel suited to high temperature applications or increase corrosion resistance. Most steels become brittle at low temperatures but the Nickel in austenitic stainless makes it suited to low temperature or cryogenic applications.

Austenitic stainless steels are generally non-magnetic. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment. Austenitic stainless steels rapidly work-harden with cold working. Although they work harden, they are the most readily formed of the stainless steels.

The principal alloying elements are sometimes reflected in the name of the steel. As an a common name for 304 stainless steel is 18/8, for 18% chromium and 8% nickel.

Austenitic Stainless Applications
Applications for austenitic stainless steels include:

  • Kitchen sinks
  • Architectural applications such as roofing and cladding
  • Roofing and gutters
  • Doors and Windows
  • Balustrading
  • Benches and food preparation areas
  • Food processing equipment
  • Heat exchangers
  • Ovens
  • Chemical tanks

Ferritic Stainless Steels
Ferritic stainless steels include grades like 430 and contain only chromium as a major alloying element. The quantity of chromium present ranges from 10.5 to 18%.

They are known for their moderate corrosion resistance and poor fabrication properties. Fabrication properties can be improved by alloy modifications and are satisfactory in grades such as 434 and 444. Ferritic stainless steels cannot be hardened by heat treatment and are always used in the annealed condition.

Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic. They are also not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Weldability is acceptable in thin sections but decreases as section thicknesses increase.

Ferritic Stainless Applications
Ferritic stainless steels are typically used in:

  • Vehicle exhausts
  • Fuel lines
  • Cooking utensils
  • Architectural trim
  • Domestic appliances

Martensitic Stainless Steels
High carbon and lower chromium content are the distinguishing features of martensitic stainless steels when compared with ferritic stainless.

Martensitic stainless steels include 410 and 416. Hardened martensitic steels cannot be successfully cold formed. They are magnetic, have moderate corrosion resistance and poor weldability.

Martensitic Stainless Applications
Martensitic stainless steels are typically used for:

  • Knife blades
  • Cutlery
  • Surgical instruments
  • Fasteners
  • Shafts
  • Springs

Duplex Stainless Steels
Duplex stainless steels have high chromium and low nickel contents. This gives duplex stainless steels microstructures that include both austenitic and ferritic phases. They include alloys like 2304 and 2205. These alloys are so named due to their respective compositions - 23% chromium, 4% nickel and 22% chromium, 5% nickel.

By having both austenite and ferrite in the microstructure, duplex stainless steels feature properties of both classes. Although a compromise between the two ‘pure’ types, duplex grades can offer some unique property solutions. Duplex grades are resistant to stress corrosion cracking, but not to the same level as ferritic grades. The toughness of duplex grades is superior to that of the ferritic grades – but inferior to that of the austenitic grades.

Most importantly, the corrosion resistance of duplex steels is equal, or superior to 304 and 316 stainless steel. This is particularly so for chloride attack.

Duplex grades are readily welded. They also have high tensile strengths.

Duplex Stainless Applications
Duplex stainless steels typically find application in areas like:

  • Heat exchangers
  • Marine applications
  • Desalination plants
  • Food pickling plants
  • Off-shore oil & gas installations
  • Chemical & petrochemical plant

Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels Grades
Precipitation hardening grades contain both Chromium and Nickel. They develop very high tensile strengths with heat treatment. Precipitation hardening grades are usually supplied in a “solution treated” condition that allows the steel to be machined. After machining or forming, the steel can be aged in a low temperature heat treatment process. As the heat treatment is performed at low temperatures, no distortion is induced in the work piece.

630 is the most common precipitation hardening grade This grade is also known as 17-4 PH due to a composition of 17% chromium, 4% nickel, 4% copper and 0.3% niobium.

Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels Applications
Precipitation hardening stainless steels are typically used for:

  • Pulp and paper industry equipment
  • Aerospace applications
  • Turbine blades
  • Nuclear waste casks
  • Mechanical components

Stainless Steels Standard Classifications
The old AISI three digit stainless steel numbering system (e.g. 304 and 316) is still commonly used. New grades are defined under the SAE and ASTM system that uses a 1-letter + 5-digit UNS number. An example of this is the new term for 304, which is S30400. Other designations include old BS and EN numbers like 304S31 and 58E.

Some grades are not covered by standard numbers and could be proprietary grades or be named using standards for specialist products like welding wire.

Stainless Steels Grade Selection
The grade selection process for stainless steels is a compromise between the desired properties of the finished product.

When selecting a particular grade of stainless steel, it is essential to consider the primary properties required, such as corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Important consideration must also be given to the secondary properties, like physical and mechanical properties. These properties will determine other factors such as the ease of fabrication of any candidate grades.

If the secondary properties are not adequate, it may not be possible to viably and economically produce the required product. An example of this is 303 stainless steel. It has excellent machinability due to an addition of Sulphur. However, the Sulphur also gives 303 poor weldability, corrosion resistance and formability.

Selecting the correct grade will ensure the product will have a long trouble-free life combined with cost-effective fabrication and installation.

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Circle H Steel Products
8261 Monroe Rd   -   Houston, TX 77061
(800) 382-7748   -   Ph: (713) 910-2111   -   Fx: (713) 910-2221
E-mail: info@circlehsteel.com
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